Coronavirus Update (18th Jan 2021). Website operating normally. Thanks for your support - stay safe!

MONTHLY OR ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP REQUIRED

FULL LIST OF OUR SHEEPDOG TRAINING TUTORIALS

For a better understanding of sheepdogs and their training, watch the videos in the order they appear on this page.
English subtitles are available on all our tutorial videos.

Top tips for easier training

Top tips for easier training
Valuable advice for sheep and cattle dog trainers Nobody would claim that training a dog to work sheep or other livestock is an easy matter. But by understanding what is going on and why, and ... Watch now

The Golden Rule of Sheepdog Training

The Golden Rule of Sheepdog Training
The most important rule when you train a dog on sheep or cattle There are a number important rules that you would do well to keep in mind when you train a dog to work ... Watch now

Sheepdog Selection and Preparation

Sheepdog Selection and Preparation
Chapters 1 & 2 from the DVD set First Steps in Border Collie Sheepdog Training A tutorial packed with essential information to help you to understand, and look after your dog. For a long time ... Watch now

Sheep – Essential Facts For Trainers

Sheep - Essential Facts For Trainers
Chapter three from the DVD set First Steps in Border Collie Sheepdog Training: "Sheep". People think sheep are stupid, but in some ways they can be very clever. When you start training your first sheepdog, ... Watch now

The Training Area

The Training Area
Chapter four from the DVD set First Steps in Border Collie Sheepdog Training The Training Area tutorial shows you how to get the most out of the field, paddock or yard you train your dog ... Watch now

What Shall I Do Next?

What Shall I Do Next?
Our suggested order for training your sheepdog When you start to train a sheepdog there are so many issues that need attention, it can be quite daunting. You can't possibly address them all at once, ... Watch now

Puppy Training Essentials

Puppy Training Essentials
Important points to remember when bringing up a puppy Tempting though it may be to try your puppy with stock at a very early age, you should beware. Unless you can be absolutely certain you're ... Watch now

The Training Stick

The Training Stick
A training stick can drastically reduce the time it takes to train your dog By far the most important tool we use for training sheepdogs is the lightweight plastic pipe. We call it the Training ... Watch now

The Dog’s Confidence

The Dog's Confidence
The dog's confidence is vitally important Understanding the factors which affect the dog's work is extremely important for a successful sheep or cattle dog trainer. Of those factors, the dog's confidence is probably the most ... Watch now

Learn Your Commands

Learn Your Commands
Confusing your commands is very bad practice Attempting to train a sheep or cattle dog when you're not fully conversant with the commands can cause serious problems. It's completely unfair on the dog because you'll ... Watch now

The Sheepdog Handler

The Sheepdog Handler
Chapter five from the First Steps in Border Collie Sheepdog Training DVD set We look at some of the qualities required in a sheepdog handler (or trainer) and how to make improvements. Topics covered include ... Watch now

Stopping the Dog (Parts 1-3)

Stopping the Dog (Parts 1-3)
Teach your dog to stop well on command (three part tutorial). The three completely revised tutorials delve into the thorny issue of getting your dog to stop, in much more detail than the earlier versions ... Watch now

Starting a Strong Dog

Starting a Strong Dog
Is your dog hard to control around sheep? In part one of "," we saw that with care, it's possible to begin a puppy's training at a very early age, but if you didn't have ... Watch now

How Can I Slow The Dog Down?

How Can I Slow The Dog Down?
Things you can do to make your dog work more steadily Probably the most common question we get asked about sheepdog training is how to slow the dog down. Of course, there's no "quick fix" ... Watch now

How Often (to Train) and How Long For?

How Often (to Train) and How Long For?
Regular training is excellent, but don't overdo it One of the questions we are most frequently asked is about the frequency and duration of sheepdog training sessions.There are no hard and fast rules, but it's ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 1)

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 1)
Follow the progress of two litter sisters - Bronwen and Scylla - as they learn to become sheepdogs. They might have the same parents, but their temperaments are very different and the same goes for ... Watch now

Balance – What’s the Point?

Balance - What's the Point?
Sheepdog trainers often refer to The Point of Balance but what exactly is it, and where can we find one? In this short tutorial, we discover that the point of balance is not always to ... Watch now

The Training Ring (Parts 1 & 2)

The Training Ring (Parts 1 & 2)
A training ring makes training your dog a lot easier A two-part tutorial. One of the most useful assets that help us to train a sheepdog is the sheepdog training ring. It's very much more ... Watch now

Get (the sheep) off the fence!

Get (the sheep) off the fence!
How to get sheep or cattle away from a fence or hedge. Getting stubborn sheep away from a fence or hedge during the early stages of training can be very frustrating unless you know the ... Watch now

Moving Out – Into the Open Field

Moving Out - Into the Open Field
Bring sheep out of a pen without drama! Getting your trainee sheepdog to bring the sheep out of the training ring without crisis can be a tricky affair. The sheep will usually grasp the slightest ... Watch now

The Outrun (Part 1)

The Outrun (Part 1)
A good outrun is essential if a sheepdog is to work efficiently. Fortunately, it's not difficult to train a dog to do an outrun, and the training process itself improves other aspects of the dog's ... Watch now

The Outrun (Part 2)

The Outrun (Part 2)
Correct positioning of the dog and handler, in relation to that of the sheep The outrun marks the difference between a dog in training and a dog in work. When you no longer need to ... Watch now

The Outrun (Part 3) Slingshot

The Outrun (Part 3) Slingshot
Using a 'Slingshot' technique to widen the dog's outrun Part three in our series of Outrun tutorials demonstrates how we use a simple technique we call "The Slingshot", to make the dog go out much ... Watch now

An Insight into Pack Behaviour

An Insight into Pack Behaviour
A tutorial to help you get a better understand your dog This tutorial's a little different from usual as we're looking at dog behaviour, rather than training. "An Insight into Pack Behaviour" was originally a ... Watch now

Give the Sheep Some Space

Give the Sheep Some Space
Teach your dog to keep well away from the sheep when flanking If your dog's going to work sheep or cattle properly, it must learn to give them plenty of room. If the dog keeps ... Watch now

Starting a non starter (Parts 1 and 2)

Starting a non starter (Parts 1 and 2)
If your dog won't work, we can help you to change its mind! It's very disappointing to find that your dog doesn't seem to want to work sheep or cattle, but it doesn't necessarily mean ... Watch now

Calm but Firm

Calm but Firm
It's so important to appear calm, even when you're not A dog which is aggressive with the sheep, but runs away as soon as the trainer attempts to correct it, is among the most difficult ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 2)

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 2)
Scylla's turn now - she's not so nice! In part one we saw how good Bronwen's sheep control can be, and we caught a glimpse of Scylla's antics too. In this tutorial, we find out ... Watch now

Backwards is the way forward

Backwards is the way forward
Our most useful exercise once you have control of the dog It's boring - and it might appear pointless to the novice, but walking backwards with the dog bringing the sheep up to you is ... Watch now

Back to Forwards

Back to Forwards
The essential sequel to "" Walking backwards with the dog steadily bringing the sheep up to you at the pace you choose to move back at, is one of the best exercises you can practice ... Watch now

Sticky Dogs (too much eye)

Sticky Dogs (too much eye)
"Too much eye" is nothing more than a confidence problem "That dog's got too much eye!" You'll sometimes hear this when a sheepdog, invariably a Border collie, appears mesmerised by the sheep, and reluctant to ... Watch now

Training Max – the Gripper (Parts 1-3)

Training Max - the Gripper (Parts 1-3)
Part 1 - A compulsive gripper can be a big problem to train Not for the faint-hearted, this tutorial deals with one of the most difficult aspects of sheepdog training, how to cope with a ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 3)

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 3)
Bronwen gets the sheep in, but Scylla's still horrible The third tutorial in our Bronwen and Scylla series sees Bronwen struggle to get the sheep into the ring. Once the sheep are in, we watch ... Watch now

Starting a reluctant dog

Starting a reluctant dog
Help boost your dog's confidence to start working sheep Most dogs are over-excited when they first encounter sheep and it's up to the trainer to do their best to protect the stock. Occasionally though the ... Watch now

Close work (Parts 1 and 2)

Close work (Parts 1 and 2)
Moving sheep in and out of yards and fields can be tricky Teaching a dog to bring the sheep to you in the open field is all very well, but your dog's capable of doing ... Watch now

Sending the Dog the Wrong Way!

Sending the Dog the Wrong Way!
A useful technique to widen your dog out from the sheep One of the best ways to get a dog to give the sheep space when it's flanking is to use a technique we call ... Watch now

Whistle (Parts 1 & 2)

Whistle (Parts 1 & 2)
Part 1 - Are you finding your whistle difficult to blow?If you work sheep at a distance, in bad weather or under noisy conditions, you need to use a shepherd's whistle, because the sound of ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 4)

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 4)
Bronwen's no angel, but Scylla's improving slowly In tutorial number four, Bronwen proves she's by no means perfect, but she continues to be a long way ahead of Scylla in terms of her reliability and ... Watch now

Sometimes Nice is Not Enough

Sometimes Nice is Not Enough
Does your dog have difficulty moving stubborn sheep or other livestock? It's all very well training your dog to keep back from the sheep and not upset them, but what can you do if the ... Watch now

Tess in the Open Field

Tess in the Open Field
A complete training session, packed with lessons As well as learning specific sheepdog training topics, we like to show you complete training sessions. This helps keep the topics in context and gives the viewer a ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 5)

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 5)
Scylla's still pretty awful - Bronwen's erratic Scylla takes an almighty charge, and scatters the sheep in all directions. Four of the sheep leave the ring but, once under control, Scylla was impressive at times ... Watch now

Why Your Dog Should Flank Both Ways

Why Your Dog Should Flank Both Ways
The importance of teaching your dog to go both ways round the stock Just as most humans are left or right-handed, the majority of herding dogs favour working in one direction over another. Often, sheep ... Watch now

My Dog’s No Good

My Dog's No Good
The dog's not 'no good', it just needs training If someone tells you your dog's no good, don't believe them.As long as your dog has the herding instinct, the will to work for its handler, ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 6)

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 6)
Is Scylla ready to work outside the ring? Part six of our series comparing the training of litter sisters, Bronwen and Scylla, sees Scylla continuing to make slow progress in the ring. Andy's hoping to ... Watch now

Driving (Parts 1 – 3)

Driving (Parts 1 - 3)
THREE TUTORIALS to help you teach your dog to drive PART 1. Some sheepdog trainers dread teaching their dog to drive and it's understandable, because when we ask a dog to take the sheep or ... Watch now

Inside Flanks (Circle on Command 1 & 2)

Inside Flanks (Circle on Command 1 & 2)
A valuable exercise for increasing control of your dog Dramatically improve your sheepdog or cattle dog's work with this important two-part tutorial. Even if the dog's already competent at driving, teaching inside flanks or circling ... Watch now

Woolly Jumpers

Woolly Jumpers
Once sheep learn to jump out, they can be a problem Sheep which jump out don't just disrupt the training session. They can injure themselves and even damage fencing and hurdles into the bargain. If ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 7) – Going too Wide

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 7) - Going too Wide
Bronwen's flanking far too wide In part seven, of our Bronwen and Scylla comparison, we focus entirely on Bronwen. Although she's far more advanced and reliable than her sister, Scylla, she's developed the all-too common ... Watch now

Use a reward to get training on board

Use a reward to get training on board
Odo was returned to us because he wouldn't get in the car! Working dogs have a huge capacity for learning, but in order to learn things that we want them to do, there must be ... Watch now

Eliminate the Toilet Break

Eliminate the Toilet Break
Discourage your dog from taking a toilet break while it's working. Not only is it not professional, but dog which has stopped to relieve itself can easily lose control of its sheep because it's focused ... Watch now

No Excuses Please!

No Excuses Please!
Take a realistic look at your dog's performance It's very easy to fall into the trap of thinking your dog's work is better than it really is. Novice trainers are often eager to move our ... Watch now

Eve at the Pen

Eve at the Pen
A complete training session, teaching the dog good pen manners. Getting sheep into a tight spot, and then getting them out again, needs confidence and control. In this tutorial we see Eve, a keen young ... Watch now

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 8)

Bronwen and Scylla (Part 8)
Scylla makes good progress When a dog's proving slow to train, it's particularly important to be able to recognise the areas where progress is being made, and to communicate approval and encouragement to the dog ... Watch now

Shedding (or Separating) The Sheep

Shedding (or Separating) The Sheep
Extremely useful on the farm, and essential for sheepdog trials. You'll need to 'shed' the sheep! Shedding is one of those operations that contradicts the basic rules we've taught the dog so far. Previously, we've ... Watch now

Educating Gloria!

Educating Gloria!
Watch a complete training session, full of valuable lessons! This tutorial shows nine-month old Gloria, a bright, enthusiastic young dog, and her fourth training session with some well-dogged sheep. As well as showing a typical ... Watch now

Sheepdog Trials – Getting Started (Part 2)

Sheepdog Trials - Getting Started (Part 2)
Further information for would-be sheepdog trials competitors Competing in your first sheepdog trial can be a daunting experience. It's not just a question of training your dog well. There are many things the competitor is ... Watch now

Sheepdog Trials – Getting Started (Part 1)

Sheepdog Trials - Getting Started (Part 1)
Information for would-be sheepdog trials competitors Preparing your dog and yourself for your first sheepdog trial is not a simple task. There are so many things to remember. Where do you go when you arrive ... Watch now

Sheepdogs Time Out!

Sheepdogs Time Out!
Get to know our sheepdogs Following on from the very popular video - and while we put the finishing touches to our latest sheepdog training tutorial, we thought we'd give you a New Year treat! ... Watch now

English subtitles are available on all our tutorial videos.

181 comments

  1. HI Andy, and sorry for my bad English.

    I have a 14 months old bitch, and she is getting better. she has a great outrun and basic training. she has no fear of sheep, no problems of biting or getting between the fence and sheep.

    My problem is that there are 4 sheep, in the field where i train, an two of them are lazy or have figured out that she is not interested in them. When she does an out run, the two sheep get left behind. When the dog and all the sheep are close to me, its no problem most of the time. I can see that the dog is not interested in the two sheep, who either run off or just get left behind. and when i tell her it is not okay to let them get away, or leaving them behind, she gets confused.

    By the way i all ways tell her its not okay to leave them behind. when the two sheep run off, i tell the bitch to look back, and get them. She runs to get the sheep, but as soon as she is at the sheep who run off, she looses focus on them, and wants to heard the sheep who are at my feet. so she knows the sheep have run of, but does not want to herd them over to me. Often I have to walk and gather the sheep for her.

    I have tried to walk backwards and keep the dog behind all the sheep. But then the two sheep just stop walking, and the dog ignores that they have stopped and just lets them stand so again i end with two sheep, and not the four.

    So what can i do to get her interested in the sheep, and get her to herd them all the time and not just when they randomly move with the other sheep?

    An answer would be greatly appreciated.

    Best regards, Tóki

    1. Your English is very good, Tóki! Unfortunately, I don’t speak any language other than English.
      It’s difficult to know exactly what’s happening without seeing it, but from what you say, I suspect you are allowing the dog to continue working two of the sheep, while the other two stay behind. I know you send the dog back for the others, but if she is keen to work sheep, then she MUST bring them all.
      Make it a firm rule, that whenever one or more sheep get left behind, you insist on the dog bringing it back, or the training will not continue.
      As I’m sure you know, once the sheep learn that they can avoid the dog, they will – and it won’t be easy to stop them running off.
      I keep saying in the tutorials that the closer you are to the dog, the more control you have over it, and you have described that in your question. Get up close to the dog and insist she keeps all of the sheep together, then very gradually increase the distance. If the walking backwards exercise is going wrong, you are probably too far away from the dog. Try driving the sheep. This way you can walk with the dog and help her. If you can get her to “dart” at the sheep or even nip one, give her a command for it, and use that command whenever she needs “more gas” (as they say in the US).
      I suggest you watch “Sometimes Nice is Not Enough“. I had a very similar problem with Carew and this shows how I corrected it. (You need to be logged-in to your account for this link to work).
      It won’t be easy to teach the sheep that they must move, but you can do it if you keep trying. Please let us know how your training progresses.

      1. Thank you. Very helpful advice.

        Just so you can get a feel for the shep i am training the dog with. I live in Faroe Islands, so the sheep are faroese sheep. the sheep i have are well dogged

        Now I insist that the training will not continue if she leaves sheep behind. and when she gathers them all i praise her. but the problem is still there. and she keeps focusing on the biggest ewe. so i just stop her far behind and let she sheep walk over to me and maybe that gives her the illusion, that she is keeping them together and pushing them to me. that way the two sheep don’t break away. the thing i am most worried about is that she normally only focuses on the biggest ewe.

        I trained her yesterdy, and got a freind to film it. you can take a look at it, if you want to ( https://youtu.be/bwxTaOho6F0 ).
        in the video i push her limits some times, or maybe too often.

        1. I’ve watched the first four minutes of the video, Tóki, and I looked at a few other moments too. I thought your dog was doing very well. She seemed to keep the sheep together well, and generally her stop is very good.
          I didn’t see any problem with sheep being ignored, and the dog seemed very keen. I hope you don’t mind me saying that I think you were very hard on the dog. Your shouting was so harsh sometimes that she looked round at you in a way that suggests she thought she’d done something wrong, but didn’t know what it was. I would encourage you to try to soften your voice, and show the dog that you’re pleased with her work (when she has done well). The only time you were nice to her was when you called her back to you.
          It was good to see you insist that she came right back to you – and the way that she reversed to you over the last metre or so showed just how keen she is to work!
          When she did an outrun and ran alongside the road I was worried that she may be able to get onto the road (I hope not).

          Why don’t you use the whistle more? I’m sure your harsh shouting makes the dog think she’s doing something wrong. Using the whistle would mean you don’t have to shout at the top of your voice when the dog’s further away – and it would benefit the people who live in those houses! I’m sure they don’t want to hear you yelling “Lie-down, lie down” so much!
          Lastly, I think those sheep are too “dogged” for your dog. You need fresher sheep which want to get away from you and the dog, rather than ones that are happy to come to you. This would make it more interesting for the dog – and further teach her to control them. Of course, I understand that you might have to manage with the sheep you have.
          I was impressed with the way the dog got the sheep out of a tight corner when she was at some distance from you.

          I didn’t see you walking backwards, but the ground is so rough that it must be difficult not to fall over! Generally, I thought what I saw was very good. The dog coped well on difficult ground – but I’d like to see you showing the dog that you’re pleased with her when she works well – and I’d like to see you let her work on her own more, and being nicer to her.
          Try just walking away (forwards but at the same time looking over your shoulder from time to time) and allowing the dog to work with NO COMMANDS! If the dog loses control of the sheep, quietly get things under control again, and then walk away again. She should learn to bring all the sheep to you wherever you go, and the more she can do it with no commands, the better!

          1. Hi again Andy. the dog is working more independently now, and my voice is lowering and the whistle is getting there.

            Today i tried shedding and she did great, so great i thought it couldn’t be real. But then i realized that every time she was shedding i pointed her in the direction of the big ewe and let one or two stand. When i tried to exclude the big ewe, she would push the two small lambs/ewes, but when i asked her to lay down, she would turn around and look at the big ewe. She did not look back at the others when i wanted her to exclude the small ewes. So that made it clear to me, that she is comfortable if the big ewe always is in the herd, but the small ones don’t need too.

            Should i get her to shed, and get her to exclude the big ewe every time, so she understands that the big ewe isn’t, the one i want her to focus on at that particular moment?

          2. The dog should be keeping all the sheep together, most of the time. It’s OK to occasionally shed off the big ewe and work the others but don’t overdo it. You don’t want the dog to think it’s OK to leave any sheep behind if it feels like it.
            Try to bring variation into your training by all means but not too much of any one thing, otherwise the dog will think that is normal.

  2. Subject:
    circling and rate behind the stock

    Message:
    Would love a video on how to get a dog that is persistant in circling
    to finally stop and get behind the stock
    THANK YOU I LOVE YOUR VIDEOS!
    Mindy

    1. Thank you for your email – and your question about a dog circling, Melinda.
      I recommend you watch the tutorials listed below

      (These links only work if you’re logged- in)
      Backwards is the way forward!
      The Training Stick
      Walking backwards is quite tedious, but it’s one of the best ways to put some polish on your dog’s work – it shows the dog where you want it to be and teaches it self discipline. Keep the dog back as you walk backwards, and the dog will learn to flank wider too.
      Good luck with the training.

  3. Hi Andy and Gill

    I have not long discovered your website but already I have learnt so much about how my 8 month bitch, Bess, needs to be trained.

    She is just about to start the very early stages of training, but she has been around the sheep for a couple of months already, she is very strong willed, both on sheep and at home, but she has a 90{a56cfaadebb0a7665ef0b8bb5f8f73bbf0eca0e81cdb3d1fbeae9197b774aba9} recall response and knows come bye, away, stop, lie down and wait, amongst the standard commands and I’m confident she will be a great asset to me. She has always looked back for me, notices when a sheep breaks free and will go after it to get it back, she also uses her voice when she comes across a sheep who wont move!

    High spirits comes with erratic chasing, selective hearing and the occasional gripping but although I correct her I am still aware she is a pup still and these moments will occur frequently whilst she is young!

    I am very pleased to have found your site as I was reluctant to let her run with other collies as I don’t want her to pick up any bad habits they may have. Plus the collies round here are not trained to the standard I wish for Bess to be. I was told I would have my work cut out to train her myself without a dog for her to follow and this concerned me that I would waste a good dog, but your videos have filled me with confidence and I cannot wait to make a proper start with her!

    Thank you again

    Jodi

    1. Thank you for your kind words, Jodi. I’m glad you find the website useful for training Bess. It’s not a good idea to train a dog by letting it run with others because the trainee dog will learn the bad habits of the older dogs as well as the good points. Believe in your dog, be firm but patient, and I’m sure you’ll succeed.
      Please let us know how you get on.

  4. Hi andy,
    After practicing for weeks on flanking and droving me and my young bitch are approaching driving. She starts to get the idea walking straight in front of me and I’m gradually increasing distance between me and the dog. As a matter of fact, approaching driving, I found out how critical it is to have a very good stop and recall. Which my dog did not have. Or not enough though. The matters covered in your videos are great. I wish I could also find some material on teaching basic obedience commands, which are foundamental stuff in the area of sheepworking. There is a lot of stuff on the net but nothing matching your approach.
    Daniele

    1. It’s very important for the dog to get off to a good start, Daniele – but it’s never too late to get things right later on (it just takes a little longer as the dog gets older).
      There’s quite a lot of information on this subject in our “First Steps in Border Collie Sheepdog Training” DVDs. I recommend you watch those to see where you’re going wrong.
      One thing springs to mind though – we are learning all the time here, and since we made “First Steps” (several years ago now) we’ve learned the value of lead training. Away from the sheep, it’s excellent practice to teach the dog to walk PROPERLY on a lead. If you can achieve this, the dog will be far easier to train, because by walking with the lead slack (as I said – away from sheep) the dog is fully accepting that you are the leader. If it’s pulling, it has not, and a dog that has not accepted you as its leader is not going to respect your wishes if they don’t coincide with its own.
      On “First Steps” you’ll see me teaching the dogs to “Stay Close” when we’re out walking. This is even more advanced than lead training, and I wouldn’t expect most trainers to have the patience to do it – but if you can, again, it does wonders for the dog’s respect of you.

  5. Hi Andy, I attended one of your courses in the summer and have made good (I think) progress with Clover over the last few weeks. She now can hold a few sheep in a small area and knows her flank commands and this is what I have been focusing on. She is though far too close to the sheep but I was hoping to leave this issue until I think she is fully capable with the flank commands. My concern however is that I am storing up or adding to a problem later by allowing her to work so close to the sheep.

    Your view would really be appreciated, Keith

    1. By allowing the dog to continue to work too close to the sheep, you are indeed storing up problems which will be harder to correct later. I urge you to widen Clover out at your earliest opportunity. The longer she’s allowed to get away with it, the more entrenched “this is how we do it” will be, in her mind.
      Driving is advanced work. It’s hard enough to get some dogs to flank wide enough when they’re driving, even when they’ve learned to flank well at other times, so it’s clearly better to teach ALL the basics before you move on to more advanced work.
      Teach the dog to WALK before you try to teach it to RUN!

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *